A computer lost to Kasparov, the 13th world chess champion, 25 years ago

In 1997, Deeper Blue, the second edition of the IBM program, won a match in 6 games (3.5 to 2.5) against the Russian champions. Since artificial intelligence has progressed to such an extent that the complexity of Japanese shogi and the go game has been widely mastered in 2017.

In oblivion “. The pawns are the spirit of chessThat, Fielder’s philosopher Maxim, who in the 18th century allowed people to understand the technique in 64 squares? Probably because since the victory of Deeper Blue Computer against chess champion Gary Kasparov in 1997, the instrument has continued to demonstrate its ability to outdo humans in increasingly complex tasks.

Dipper Blue’s victory was an event “Culturally amazing“But”Technically, it was just a great success“The doctor of artificial intelligence,” explained Philip Rowlett to AFP. Basically, the success of Deeper Blue is simply a victory for “.Brutal ball“, A co-founder of Artefact, is a consultancy and technology development firm in the field with 800 employees.

At the moment, the machine has won thanks to its powerful computing power, which allows it to determine all the possibilities for the evolution of the game over a long period of time and to figure out the best part of the game. In fact, the real revolution is emerging from the laboratory at this time: machine learning (or automated) learning, and artificial neural networks, which have made great strides in artificial intelligence over the past decade.

Although Deep Blue knew how to play chess for the complete architecture of the logical rules established by humans, the new machines made their own rules, a learning time where they took up the mountain of data. “We move from compulsory programming to programming through learningPhilip Rowlett explains. In games, the impact is staggering. In 2017, Deepmind’s Alfago algorithm, based on machine learning, defeated KG, the world’s best go player.

Before Alfago, “There was speculation that people with disabilities should be given to God to be on an equal footing with them“The author of a recent 2018 founder’s report on artificial intelligence (AI), Deputy Mathematician Cedric Villani, says. “And then see the level of human crushingBy AlphaGo, “We realized that man was much less good than he was. Some of the tricks of the algorithm that we initially thought rookie mistakes turned out to be great moves“, He continued.

A “Own lessonA

Today, machines are capable of losing people even in games of the uncertain universe, such as poker or bridge, as recently demonstrated by French start-up NukkAI. These gigantic moves go completely out of the game world, where the machine has nothing more to prove. Has created artificial intelligence in recent yearsAbsolutely amazing progress that surprised me myselfYann LeCun, AFP, is the head of AI research at Meta / Facebook and one of the founders of modern AI.

Today we are capable“To allow a machine”To translate any language into any language in a set of 200 languages“Where”A single neural network consisting of one hundred languages“, He explains. But the machines still come up against obstacles.”It’s not because we can have a fun conversation with GPT3“, Elon Musk’s OpenAI startup’s suffocating text generator, that’s it”Will be able to help us in daily life“She is OK.

To design this virtual assistant what is missing – and of course to build a truly autonomous vehicle – must be reached. “In a general self-education systemSays Ian Lekun. “We will put the computer in front of 200 hours of video, and from that, it will come in the form of ‘understanding the world’, ‘common sense’. That will allow him to reach the power of learning.”Close to what is seen between animals and humans“The researcher is sure that the machine will one day,” he explained.A universal ability to learn, capable of learning what people learn, in most cases with higher ability
But when will it happen? The answer is not clear“, He concludes cautiously …

In 1997, the loss to Dipper Blue had a devastating effect on Kasparov AFP / Stan Honda

Kasparov’s historic push rate

Dipper-Blue-Kasparov, New York 11 May 1997, Caro-Can Defense Corpove variant

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Ng5 Ngf6 6.Bd3 e6 7.N1f3 h6 8.Nxe6!?! (a) Qe7 9.OO fxe6 10.Bg6 + Kd8 11.Bf4 b5 12.a4 Bb7 13.Re1 Nd5 14.Bg3 Kc8 15.axb5 cxb5 16.Qd3 Bc6 17.Bf5 exfRx5 Bc6 17.Bf5 exfRxe 17.1919pas -0
A) A decision, at that time, is incredible or even impossible to take for a “Machine“He, IBM’s super-calculator, has started a design, a speculative sacrifice, which so far is the exclusive right of human thought. …

A small piece for history

Right hand under his chin, black eyes, Gary Kasparov looks at the chessboard for the last time, annoyed, before suddenly leaving the table. It’s a thunderclap: the chess king has just been hit by a computer. On May 11, 1997, an instrument knocked out the world champion for the first time since a control match. This date will mark the history of the discipline and shed light on the shining possibilities of artificial intelligence.

LawBakur OgreThe 34-year-old, who has been the master of the World Chess Board since 1985, lost after six games with a final score of 3.5 to 2.5 against the Deeper Blue Super Computer designed by IBM.
In front of the camera from all over the world, who came to film the show in New York, the shock tasted like an insult to Prachanda Kasparov. Did he not assure that he would stand by the machine at least until the dawn of the next millennium?

A year ago, the Russians brought down the Deep Blue with a score of 4 to 2. But its designers have consistently improved the 1.4-ton monster, now capable of counting 200 million locations per second. Shaken by his defeat, the champion still refuses to acknowledge the superiority of the machine. “Computers have not yet proved anythingHe told a news conference after the match, according to AFP. “A man, the best player in the world, cracked under pressure“, He explains, speaking for himself,”But we can lose the computer, it has many weaknesses

Far from comforting the victim with the promised 400 400,000, he denounced IBM for not giving him access to previous games played by machines that were able to analyze all of his own. He even went so far as to accuse people of helping the computer during the match and regretting not having it. “Tied to certain conditions“To play”Honest

Other players in the world of Cream of Chess, who have experienced live confrontation, have also refused to consider the Grandmaster’s defeat as a tipping point. Asked by the press, they point to a series of bad choices by the Russian champions. For some, his obsessive need to understand the blows of the machine without concentrating on winning was deadly to him.

Computer opportunities or human hands?

Many years later, a book would reveal a secret information from one of the developers of Deep Blue: a computer error tipped the game. Unable to choose between several moves, the machine would play randomly during a game, destabilizing Kasparov for the rest of the collision.

Either way, the victory of Deeper Blue has pleased IBM to see its interest in computer skills.
All of this has nothing to do with human struggle against machines but with how we can use human technology to solve complex problems.“Chung-Zhen Tan, the head of the excited IBM project after the match. And to appreciate what artificial intelligence will bring in many areas, from financial analysis to the study of natural, weather or earthquake events.

Kasparov, anxious for revenge, will draw twice against the computer in 2003. But time will finally soothe his wounded ego. After the 1997 defeat,I was devastatedHe made his debut in 2019 in an interview with the Swiss newspaper Le Temps.But with a little concealment“His defeat was seen by him.”A victory for mankind“, Since it predicted”The width of the range of activities that can be assisted by technology“From now on, the chess legend is concerned about the digital giants’ preoccupation with individual freedom:”They have to be held accountableHe made the request in an interview with AFP in November 2021.

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