Pediatric hepatitis of unknown origin: SARS-CoV-2 hypothesis

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LawThe epidemic OfHepatitis Unknown sources affecting children are spreading around the world. Since its detection in early April 2022, More than 450 children have been infected And eleven died in Indonesia, the United States and Palestine. Several of them also had to endure Bribe Of Liver.

This is a sticky posture for hepatitis scientists. Negative for young patients Hepatitis virus Which from A to E, as their name implies, multiply in the liver cells and cause damage there. Today’s favorable hypothesis is infection with another virus,Adenovirus Type 41. However, the latter is not known to induce liver problems in children who are immunocompromised.

Involved in SARS-CoV-2?

In the published letter Lancet Gastroenterology and HepatologyPetter Brodin, ofImperial College Of London, and Moses Arditi of Cedar Sinai Hospital In Los Angeles, it offers another line of thought that is involved SARS-CoV-2Adenovirus does not differentiate type 41. ” We hypothesize that recent cases of severe pediatric hepatitis may be the result of infection by an adenovirus. Tropism Intestinal infections in children previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and viral reservoir carriers. A

Several observations support their assumptions. About 12% of young patients are identified in Europe Hospitalization was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Testing to find attendanceAntibodies Anti-SARS-CoV-2, symptoms of a few months old infection. Of the 19 European cases for which this information is available, 14 actually contained anti-coronavirus antibodies. Also, most hepatitis cases are of concern to children under 5 years of age, who are ineligible Vaccine.

The process is still speculative

The two scientists suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 genome was present in the baby’s stool, which would be a sign of stability in the intestinal tract, but could also indicate the nature of the immune system, which could reveal “superintegen” type mechanisms.

Different from viral super Antigen Antigen Classically they not only activate T lymphocytes that can recognize them specifically, but all that carry a common receptor, thus stimulating entire families of TCR-cells. Some scientists believe that a superantigen is probably a part of it Protein Of S CoronavirusWill be responsible for its severe form Covid-19A common inflammatory condition that can affect the liver in children.

What do we know about hepatitis of unknown origin that affects children for several months?

This article was published April 22, 2022 by Julie Kern

Hundreds of cases of hepatitis, initially still controversial, are of concern to children in the United States but also in Europe and France. Doctors have not yet officially identified their source, but a virus other than hepatitis is being suspected.

In early April, WHO has received an unusual report ; Ten children under the age of 10 have severe hepatitis – a Inflammation Liver – In Scotland. Today, UK Health Authority Identify a total of 108 similar cases. Across the Atlantic, The CDC has just released a note Indicates that as of November 2021, five cases of pediatric hepatitis have been detected in a hospital in Alabama; And four more since then. In Europe, Spain, Denmark, Ireland but also in France, two cases have been reported in Lyon.

Atypical liverworms in children

Infected children present with Symptoms Serious hospitalization is required, including JaundiceFrom DiarrheaVomiting and Pain Acute abdomen Most children were able to be treated quickly, although a small number of them underwent liver transplants. No deaths have been reported so far. Hepatitis is not common in children, and the exact source of these cases remains unknown, although doctors have a lead: a virus.

Inflammation of the liver can be caused by a virus,AlcoholAnd In addition to certain medications Or by underlying autoimmune disease or Genetic. The problem is that the recent pediatric case is negative Hepatitis virus A to E.The most common cause of liver inflammation. Doctors suspect another virus, but it is not known to have invaded the liver.

Adenoviruses are viruses DNA Double-stranded, large that is transmitted through contact with contaminants or respiratory droplets. There are about 50 different viruses in this family, of which 40 can infect humans. In most cases they cause respiratory infections but can also have some types Inflammation of the stomach and intestinesFrom CystitisFrom Conjunctivitis And in very rare cases, Encephalitis. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infection.

Adenovirus type 41 suspected criminals

Physicians are particularly interested in adenovirus type 41 which is known to be associated with gastroenteritis in children, often with respiratory damage. The incidence of hepatitis due to adenovirus type 41 infection has been documented but only in immunocompromised children in healthy children, the virus is not known to cause such symptoms.

All sick children in the United States have tested positive for adenovirus type 41, with the rest under investigation. ” If an adenovirus is responsible, it could be a new form of damage to the liver of children with impaired immune systems. But to be sure we need to know more. On the other hand, if adenovirus is responsible for hepatitis in healthy children, we need to look for other infections or environmental factors that may increase the inflammation caused by adenovirus. “, Jania Stamataki explains, associate professor of viral immunology Liver and Gastrointestinal Research Center From Birmingham.

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