All scientific studies have shown that vaccination against Kovid-19 is effective in preventing severe forms of the disease. However, some patients who were vaccinated with two doses after SARS CoV-2 infection were hospitalized. Since the onset of the epidemic, many researchers have therefore asked themselves this important question: How do you explain that some infected patients show no symptoms while others develop pneumonia which can lead to death? An even better answer to this question is the emergence of an international collaboration led by researchers at Insaram *, between Necker-Infants Malades Hospital AP-HP and the Imagine Institute at Rockefeller University in New York. This collaboration has already led to the publication of a study in August 2021 which showed that severe pneumonia after SARS-CoV-2 infection is explained by genetic incompatibility (about 5%) and immunological (14%) in about 20% of cases. Case) which weakens the immune system.
Their hypothesis stimulates the immune response carried by type I interferon (IFN 1), a group of 17 proteins that are normally produced rapidly by body cells in response to viral infections and whose main effect is to inhibit virus replication in infected cells. In addition, we are talking about automated antibodies when antibodies attack a person’s own cells in the body. This first study found autoantibodies directed against type 1 interferon in some patients with severe forms of Covid-19. By neutralizing the action of IFN 1, these automated antibodies therefore prevent the body from better protecting against the virus. This knowledge gained about the immunological deficiencies associated with the increased risk of severe Covid-19 has enabled scientists to perform other tasks published by this same team. Science Immunology To determine why some vaccinated individuals become infected with SARS-CoV-2 in very rare cases and then develop serious illnesses for hospitalization.
Examine patients to identify risks
To better understand this phenomenon, the researchers recruited 48 patients between the ages of 20 and 80 who, despite having a full immunization schedule with an mRNA vaccine, had a severe to severe seizure after delta variant infection. The first step was to verify whether the vaccine was actually effective in these participants, meaning that the body responded by producing a good level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The idea was to isolate and diagnose other causes, wanting to rule out serious forms that could develop after immunization failure. For various reasons (HIV infection, presence of lymphoma, taking immunosuppressive treatment, etc.), six patients had a defective vaccine response and were therefore excluded from the study. The scientists then built on their previous work and looked for the presence of anti-interferon type 1 (IFN-1) autoantibodies in the remaining 42 patients. Various tests were performed to measure the levels of anti-IFN-1 autoantibodies as well as their neutral character.
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Analysis of the collected data showed that 24% of the 42 patients were given antibodies that were able to neutralize type 1 interferon. Severe viral infections. “ Interestingly, although these patients developed a severe form of Covid-19, none of them died. However, in the immunized population, 20% of those who die contain anti-interferon type 1 autoantibodies. So we can assume that the vaccine did not succeed in preventing the development of the disease but did have an effect. Illness. “Underline the researchers. The final stage of their work, in order to further understand the underlying biological processes, is to conduct in-depth molecular studies that ultimately enable researchers to accurately identify the subtypes of the corresponding autoantibodies. The results? These are mainly anti-alpha 2 and / or anti- Omega had autoantibodies.
Based on these observations, researchers therefore believe that “ These results help explain why some vaccinated individuals, who have high levels of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, can take serious risks. Although the phenomenon remains very rare, it is important to gain a solid knowledge of the subject in order to adapt to prevention and patient management strategies.. This is why the latter suggest, in conclusion, to test for the presence of anti-IFN-1 autoantibodies in vaccinated patients admitted to the hospital after SARS-CoV-2 infection. They will continue to work on their own to better understand why these anti-IFN-1 autoantibodies are made in certain patients by focusing on genetic factors. It should be noted that in terms of immunizations, the High Authority for Health (HAS) last May issued an “Autumn Vaccination for the Most Risky People”, such as immunocompromised individuals aged 65 and over and / or serious, in anticipation of the immunization campaign. Presents comorbidity at the risk of size.