Nephrotic syndrome in children: what are the symptoms?

Nephrotic syndrome is a rare kidney disease that affects about 15 children per 100,000 and is more common in boys than in girls. What are the symptoms? Reasons? Medical? Answer with Prof. Antoine Durbach, a nephrologist at Henry-Monder Hospital.

Definition: What is nephrotic syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome is a Kidney disease characterized by dysfunctional filtration. At the level of the kidneys, a type of filter called glomerulius is responsible for eliminating certain elements in the blood, such as water, salt and urea, but also proteins and circulating cells in the blood. In nephrotic syndrome, there is An inconsistency in this filter Which, of course, made the video an overnight sensation Protein passes in urine When they perform should be in the blood. As a result, the subject will lose a significant amount of protein, including albumin, which will happen Decreasing albumin levels In the blood and leads Water and salt accumulate in the body. May cause nephrotic syndrome Between children and adults.

What are the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome?

“When there is no more albumin in the blood, Edema Appears because all interstitial tissues have penetration of water and sodium. They can be located Eyelids, ankles, feet, Or even Scholarship In the boy“, Indicates nephrologist P. Antoine Durbach.

What causes nephrotic syndrome?

Different causes or processes may be involved:

Often, nephrotic syndrome occurs Idiopathic : No cause found. There are two forms: Idiopathic corticosteroid syndrome And Idiopathic corticosteroid resistant syndrome.

Nephrotic syndrome can be as follows Viral infections or vaccines.

► More rarely, it turns out to be a Genetic diseases Transmitted by parents: An incompatibility between the proteins involved in the formation of podocytes, the cells that make up this filter, create a filtration incompatibility. It may appear at birth, which is relatively rare, or the mask may be removed shortly after infancy.

Presence Inflammation in different parts of the body Immediately suspect a nephrotic syndrome. “Diagnosis is confirmed by Urine protein test Using a urine strip that is dipped directly into the urine, then analyzed according to the color present in the bottle. In general, in childhood nephrotic syndrome, the presence of albumin in the urine is not associated with high blood pressure, blood in the urine, or renal failure.“, Develops nephrologist.

What is the treatment for nephrotic syndrome?

Based on first-line treatment Corticosteroid therapy With the administration Prednisone (Cortancyl) 1mg / kg daily until regression of nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome usually goes away Between 15 days and one month And Half Then the dose is gradually reduced. “If the child responds positively to corticosteroids, he or she may have idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. If he does not respond to corticosteroids or appears to be corticosteroid-dependent, A kidney biopsy Can be performed. Together, a Genetic analysis Will perform to ensure the absence of genetic abnormalities. In the case of corticosteroid dependence, Immunosuppressants Affects T lymphocytes (cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolic acid, levamisole) or B lymphocytes (retuximab). Parallel, A salt free diet Weak elimination of salt by the kidneys is recommended to limit edema and a Vitamin D and calcium supplements“, Says the expert.

What is the life expectancy in case of nephrotic syndrome?

In addition to edema, nephrotic syndrome Increases the risk of infection, The Risk of malnutrition and thrombosis When used in high doses in children, corticosteroids can affect the growth of children, causing muscle damage. “However, with appropriate medical procedures, Nephrotic syndrome has little effect on longevity“, Professor Antoine Durbach assured.

Thanks to Prof. Antoine Durbach, a nephrologist at Henry-Monder Hospital.

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