How the brain interprets dynamic movement

Suppose you are sitting on a train. You look out the window and see another train on an adjacent track that seems to be moving. But, did your train stop while another train was running, or were you moving while the other train was still running?

The same sensory experience – seeing a train – can create two completely different perceptions, allowing you to feel your own movement or the feeling of stillness when an object revolves around you.

The human brain is constantly exposed to such vaguely sensitive inputs. In order to solve ambiguities and accurately perceive the world, our brain uses a process known as causation.

Causal hypothesis is the key to learning, reasoning and decision making, but researchers now know very little about the neurons involved in the process.

In a new article published in the journal eLifeResearchers at the University of Rochester, Greg Dengelis, George Eastman, Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, and colleagues at Sunkinkwon University and New York University, have described a new neural process involved in guessing which helps the brain to move an object. Self-movement

The research provides new insights into how the brain interprets sensitive information and may have applications in the design of artificial intelligence devices and in the development of treatments and therapies for the treatment of brain disorders.

“Although much has been known before about how the brain processes visual movements, most laboratory studies of neurons have ignored the complications introduced by self-movement,” said Dengelis. “Under natural conditions, it is much more difficult for the brain to detect how objects move around the world.”

Now imagine a motionless, crooked lion waiting for prey; It is easy for a lion to spot a moving deer. Like a motionless lion, when an observer is motionless, it is easier for him to detect the motion of objects in the world, because the motion of the world directly matches the motion of the retina. However, when the observer also moves, their eyes move across their retina as they move relative to the object in sight. This creates a complex motion pattern that makes it difficult for the brain to detect when an object is moving on the earth and when it is stationary; In this case, the brain must distinguish between the image movement received by the observer and the image movement of other objects around it.

Researchers have discovered a type of neuron in the brain that has a specific combination of response properties, making it suitable for neurons to help differentiate between self-movement and the movement of other objects.

“Although the brain probably uses different techniques to solve this problem, the advantage of this new mechanism is that it can be implemented in parallel in each local area of ​​the visual field, and therefore can be implemented faster than other global processes,” said DeAngelis. May also apply in cases where fast moving objects need to be identified. A

There may be more important applications of research in the development of treatments and therapies for neurological disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, in situations where incidental hypotheses are considered disabling.

“While the project focuses on understanding the basic sciences that underlie the basic mechanisms of causal hypotheses, this knowledge should ultimately be applied to the treatment of these disorders,” said Dengelis.

Source of the story

Materials provided by University of Rochester. Originally written by Lindsay Valich. Note: Content can be edited for style and length.

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