Will AIs ever have a conscience?

The The weather 4’s Westworld Upcoming: Dolores, Charlotte and Caleb may surprise us. Will the robot revolution end? We’ll find out its release date, June 26th. Why was the question not asked Awareness ? It revolves around the series each season: from the first episode where each host seems to follow a specific scenario, to the last season where people set their minds. In artificial bodies.

Season 4 will be released on June 26 at OCS. HBO, YouTube

How is consciousness defined?

Intelligence, consciousness, thought or even living: so many terms for which the definitions do not reach a consensus. It is a mystery that has surrounded us for hundreds of years, even thousands of years: Where does our consciousness come from and how is it defined? Several theories rely on it, but that separates the majority conscience, and Self-awareness. One is more towards awakening and the ability to think, and the other is to differentiate ourselves from other living beings around us: it is this self-awareness that takes into account free will, moral values ​​or the world around us. One can quote a very famous I can think therefore sum “, Where I think so By mathematicians and philosophers Rene DescartesWhich is a form of confirmation of existence characteristic of thought.

Experiments have shown that animals other than humans are also self-conscious. This is especially the case in one study Elephant Part of it: they didn’t just pass the “test” Mirror And stains “, during which they remove a mark on their heads when they look at themselves in the mirror, but also on the carpet. An Asian elephant was able to realize that his body was on a carpet, which prevented the passage of a stick attached to the same carpet.

Science often works by biomimicry, that is, inspired by living things. So digitizing human consciousness is a logical step in creating an artificial intelligence that can mimic or transcend our abilities. Futura-Sciences met with Jean-Claude Houdin, director of the research laboratory at IIM (Internet and Multimedia Institute) to understand the disadvantages of such an initiative. Futura

Next to it The brain, Fields of consciousness are missing for the moment. Researchers have been successful in mapping the brain for some time Different states of consciousness : Time SleepThe Coma Or when a person is awake. And they found differences in the interactions between regions: between conscious people, they are more dynamic and complex, while among unconscious people, they become simpler and take place only in regions directly connected to each other. For the area of ​​consciousness, they will be located Brainstem For the awakening zone, then The prefrontal cortex. The ultimate goal of finding all these areas is brain mapping. With a realistic map of cognitive functions and their location, the researchers then developed this same structure. Artificial intelligence.

Finally, a theory assumes a Quantum source of consciousness : The theory of orchestrated objective reduction of consciousness, often called arch or theory. First proposed by mathematicians Roger Penrose And anesthesiologist Stuart Hammerff, of the University of Arizona, blames consciousness for quantum computations in the brain. Controversial because the heated, humid environment of the brain would be too disruptive for quantum effects, it assumes electrical oscillations in tiny structures located in the microtubule. Neuron Of the brain Currently, researchers are conducting underground experiments to find almost identifiable radiation caused by these quantum fluctuations.

The key in Westworld“Daydream”

But Westworld, As we learn from Season 1, the hosts’ consciousness is created for “dreams”: they pass and re-play the events of the night experience while immersed in artificial sleep. The opposite Our own dreamDaydreams are made up of real memories, and not distorted realities, they do not contain inconsistent elements. The next day, just like us, the pieces come back to them and gradually they become aware of themselves. But daydreaming is more than that: robots Westworld, Or the hosts, as they are called in the series, begin to hear a voice in their minds. Speaking of Arnold, one of the park’s co-founders who committed suicide in an attempt to prevent it from being made public, he was convinced that his creations were conscious.

The underlying assumption is that the first is that dreams are most important in establishing consciousness, not just memories, which have already been implanted in the host. Indeed, these memories create an identity for the robot, making it more humane, but it is not enough to question its existence. The series, on the other hand, speaks of a pyramid of consciousness, the first level being memory, the second, improvisation (creation, which comes out of a previously defined program), the third, personal interest, and the upper floor. Not explained but it is assumed that we find the famous conscience there. For this, the character of Arnold, the co-founder of the park Westworld, This idea is based on bipolarism or bipolar theory established by psychologist Julian Jens Its starting man His thinking is wrong for the divine voice. Gradually, this dichotomy broke down and people then formed a true conscience. This assumption has been refuted, but the 1980s made a lot of noise.

The AIs are moving further and further, will they pass the Turing test?

But a robot, or an artificial intelligence that follows a program, raises the question of consciousness differently: how can one be sure that if it develops symptoms of consciousness, it is real, and not just the result of a computer program? This is where Turing-test Comes into play, founded in 1950 by mathematician and cryptologist Alan Turing. We learn this in Season 1: Park Westworld Was allowed to open after passing this test. It evaluates the ability of an artificial intelligence to perfectly imitate a human being, where it is impossible to distinguish it from a real person. Currently, No AI actually passed the testBut it will be Google-owned Gato that will come closest.

Another Google AI has recently sparked controversy: an engineer has claimed that artificial intelligence LAMDA has reached a level of consciousness similar to ours. For this, he relied on his dialogue with AI: in one of them, he claimed that he was afraid of its inactivity, which he considered the equivalent of death in humans. But Google claims that all of these conversations are just improvisations on familiar themes, And there is no sign of conscience, and the engineer has been fired. This is not the first time something like this has happened Ethics in AI is in debate.

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