A Portrait of Diversity France: A huge study sheds light on the family, educational and professional trajectories of three generations of immigrants, destroying specific perceptions in a country where one-third of the population under the age of 60 is outside France.
The National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INC) and the National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) have released the first results of the second Trajectories and Origin Survey (TeO2) conducted between July 2019 and November 2020 on the basis of a representative sample. Eleven years after the first edition, 27,200 people aged 18 to 59.
21% of the French population is associated with immigration: 9% of the French population is an immigrant (5.8 million people) and 12% of immigrant fathers and / or mothers (7.5 million). Also, 10% of immigrants under the age of 60 are grandchildren (4.7 million), according to the first study from the TeO2 survey.
In total, one-third of people under the age of 60 have been associated with immigration for three generations, the institutes noted.
Immigrants are especially important among 20-45 year olds (15% of 40-44 year olds), as many come to France when they are of working age. Rarely among those under 18 (3%).
Conversely, in the second generation, descendants of immigrants are highly represented compared to minors (20%), 11% of 18-59 year olds, and 7% of those over 60 years of age.
– More mixed unions over time –
The figures reflect the history of immigration flows in the 20th and 21st centuries: in the second generation of immigrants, two-thirds of minors are of African descent. In contrast, 90% of the descendants of immigrants over the age of 60 are of European descent.
In addition to this overall picture, INSEE and INED show color charts of people’s fortunes, including immigrant backgrounds through couples or school careers.
Thus the institutes notice an increase in mixed union in lineage: 63% of immigrants live in a couple with immigrants, while 66% of second-generation immigrants live in a couple with immigrants. This is the case for 78% of people in Southern Europe and 39% of people of North African descent.
Because of this mix of unions, the intensity of the connection with immigration decreases over the generations: half of the second-generation immigrants come from mixed couples. Nine-tenths of the third generation immigrants have only one or two immigrant grandparents.
Children of mixed couples (41%) and grandchildren of immigrants (44%) often graduate from higher education as “descendants of natives” (43%), with +2 diplomas or more, according to statistics related to those aged 30-59.
This is lower in the case of children of two immigrant parents (33%), as their parents ’education level was lower (5% as opposed to the average of 20% in the other three categories).
– “Strong parental solidarity” –
However, the children of these two immigrant parents who “cover the greatest distance”: more than 70% of them earn a higher diploma than their parents, 55 to 57% from immigrant backgrounds, 3rd generation compared to mixed couples or couples.
What is effective in families in the Maghreb and southern Europe, where only 3% of parents have a higher education diploma, is “the strong solidarity of immigrant parents towards their children’s academic success,” the study notes.
How does this degree translate into the job market? Higher education graduates born to parents of non-European descent have more difficulty accessing intermediate or higher occupations: 77% for children of indigenous people, 63% for those whose parents are from the Maghreb, 67% from Asia, and 71% from Africa.
Data from Insee and Ined also show that the number of people in France who have been discriminated against has increased from 14% in 19 years to 19%.
The first cause of discrimination is origin (nationality or skin color) for 8% of them, but gender before origin has become the first cause of discrimination for women (10%).