In 2021, the Public Health France survey identified, from 1er From June to September 30, 1,480 drowned in accidents, 27% of which were fatal. It is the youngest and the oldest who are most affected by this panic. Children under the age of 6 are responsible for 22% of accidental drownings and 6% for deaths and 26% and 41% for people over the age of 65, respectively. Note that 47% occur in the ocean, 26% in all types of swimming pools, 23% in water bodies or bodies of water and 4% in other places (bathtubs, basins, etc.).
Read more: Fighting drowning: Should a “swimming permit” be introduced?
Given the increase in these accidents between 2015 and 2018, drowning prevention is one of the government’s priority measures, similar to the “How to Ride a Bike” project, through a subsidized “Aquatic Accessibility” program. . », Established in 2019 by the National Sports Agency. In 2021, ANS has invested 1.7 million euros for about 50,000 children who have benefited from the scheme for the 232 structures (local authorities, associations) involved in the operation. Also, ANS has funded the acquisition or renovation of aquatic sports equipment (20) and mobile pool (10) in 2021 amounts to 12 million euros.
At the political level, while addressing the risk of drowning, the goal of these investments is to reduce inequality of access to swimming practice. Thus, after the time for child swimmers up to 3 years, this national program is divided into two consecutive and complementary stages. Initially, for children aged 4 to 6 years, it is a question of developing aquatic readiness that forms the gateway to learning to swim.
According to Thierry Terrett, this concept of aquatic comfort is “very versatile” considering evolution, since XVIe Centuries, suggestions from academics on the subject (Digby, Hebert, Gauthier, Laliman, Shobel, Kateu). According to him, there are three forms of aquatic comfort:
A provision before the actual learning of one or more swimming techniques (breaststroke, crawl, backstroke, etc.);
Principles of balance, movement, breathing, and information retrieval are easy to master;
Available driving or experimental capital.
As François Potdevin and Fabien Camporelli (2020) show, where the concept of aquatic fluency does not exist in swimming teaching programs around the world, on the other hand, the concepts of aquatic skills and aquatic abilities have been further integrated into training programs for safety. Swimming
Overall, it is now understood that aquatic comfort refers to a positive experience of water, so not anxiety-stimulating, able to function appropriately in a variety of accidental situations in the aquatic environment. Help (fry, cork belt, etc.) in deep water, i.e. at least higher than the height of the person holding the arm, when able to move and get out of the water individually. Defined in this way, being comfortable in the water further refers to the second form identified by Thierry Terrett.
Organized logically to combat drowning among the youngest, the Ministry of National Education, Youth and Sports (Memorandum February 28, 2022) makes aquaculture available through three levels of progressive acquisition, keeping students in extreme depth without flotation equipment.
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The first level is similar to “entering the water alone, being completely submerged and coming out of the water alone”, level 2 “jumping or falling into the water, letting yourself go up, floating in different positions, coming back”. The edge and come out alone “and finally, step 3” to enter the water with the head, climb to the surface, cover the head 10 meters in a prone position by dipping the head, float your back through the basin to the surface, get the edge back and come out alone “.
Compared to drowning accidents, these requirements aim to protect the youngest children in a private, family swimming pool or in a natural environment (sea, lake, river) with a lack of parental care or supervision during an accident. Qualified personnel (lifeguard, national water protection and rescue certificate). Depending on the age of the target students (4-6 years), aquatic simple sessions do not lead to the acquisition of swimming techniques like breaststroke. According to the latest scientific work, these young children achieve this by changing their mobility and earthly reflection from an 8-week program consisting of 8 to 16 sessions.
As part of the Blue Class at school, children have access to aquatic easy sessions in the form of learning massage at the rate of 40 minutes or 8 sessions of two weeks. Outside of school time, they may follow Blue Courses set by local authorities within the structure of leisure centers with the same amount of learning time, for example.
It is also possible to develop aquatic comfort and swimming learning within the framework of a given session within the framework of qualified lifeguards (private or public swimming pools, fitness rooms equipped with pools, etc.) or swimming clubs approved by federal swimming instructors. French Swimming Federation (FFN). In addition, when summer comes, children can also follow such sessions at beach clubs on the French coast. These courses are chargeable.
When it comes to water comfort comes “how to swim” and the national system is “I’m learning to swim”. This device targets children between the ages of 6 and 12 and contributes to getting the expected Safe Swimming Certificate (ASNS) in the sixth grade. FFN, through its authorized clubs, is a partner in these operations. Outside the school walls, “I Learn to Swim” is primarily aimed at children in neighborhoods and rural areas. This device, which usually includes 10 sessions of 30 minutes to an hour, usually free or modest to local authorities, depending on the age and level of the children.
Since 2006, the Certificate of Safe Swimming (ASNS) has been a key part of school skills such as reading, writing and counting. The ASNS certification test is in the swimming pool. It is based on a sequence of eleven works “in continuity, without receiving strong support (at the edge of the pool, at the bottom or any other element of the surface). No restrictions or time limits. Also, students are assessed on a set of knowledge and perspectives on aquatic prevention, such as how to identify the person responsible for monitoring to be alert in case of problems, to know and respect the basic rules of hygiene and safety. Knowing how to identify in an organization and supervised area and in environments and situations where ASNS allows you to develop security.
In other words, children need to be trained to recognize before entering the water, in situations where their ASNS does not cover them, especially on environmental hazards (tides, baths, currents, water levels, etc.), climate elements and the absence of qualified surveillance personnel. Because it is essential, not vital, to teach them that when safety conditions are not met or guaranteed, the first thing to do is to get into the water.
Read more: Bains and Rip Currents: What You Need to Know Before Going Swimming
Clearly, this education in water conservation, through its risk management, is often absent in training programs. Finally, between primary school and secondary school, with the availability of aquatic access and ASNS, the policy of breaststroke learning for swimmers is first regulated to facilitate the acquisition of the transverse motor policy (body, floating) to get out of it. , Projectile body, propelling body) and common to all strokes.
Second, learning to crawl, which constitutes common aquatic knowledge for long and / or rapid swimming, is preferred over breaststroke. However, this is often the first swim taught by lifeguards in public or private swimming pools. Furthermore, parents, due to their safe presentation of swimming, are currently requesting more than secular connection with security for this technological acquisition.