📰 Neutrino factories in deep space

An international research team reveals for the first time the origin of neutrinos, elementary particles that reach our planet from the depths of the universe.

An artist’s impression of a blazar that accelerates cosmic rays, neutrinos, and photons, as seen in the Pevatron blazar.
© Benjamin Amend

Extremely energetic and difficult to detect, neutrinos travel billions of light years before reaching us the planet (A planet is a cosmic object that orbits the Sun or another star…). If we know that these elementary particles come from our depths the world (The universe is the sum total of all that exists and the laws that govern it.), their precise origin remains unknown. Its an international team Research (Scientific research indicates in the first place that all actions taken aim at…) Powered byuniversity (A university is an institution of higher learning whose purpose is to…) of Würtzburg (JMU) in Germany andUniversity of Geneva (The University of Geneva (UNIGE) is the public university of the Canton of Geneva…) (UNIGE), has lifted the veil on part of this mystery: neutrinos are especially likely to be born in blazars, fed by galactic nuclei supermassive black holes. These results will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

l’Earth’s atmosphere (Earth’s atmosphere is the atmospheric envelope surrounding the solid Earth. Dry air consists of…) are constantly bombarded with cosmic rays. These electrically charged particles consist of,strength (In a general sense, energy designates anything that allows you to do work, create energy, etc.) can reach 1020 electron-volts. It’s a million (One million (1,000,000) is the natural number nine hundred and ninety-nine…) times greater than the power reached atparticle accelerator (Particle accelerators are devices that use fields…) the most powerful the world (may refer to the word world 🙂great clasher (A collider is a type of particle accelerator that involves beams…) Hadrons from CERN, Geneva. These extremely powerful particles come from deep space. Thus they traveled billions of light years before reaching our planet. Where exactly do they come from and what permeates the universe with them strength (The word force can designate a mechanical force on things, and also, metaphorically, a…)? This question has been asked more than once century (A century is now a period of one hundred years. The word comes from the Latin seculum, i, which…). One of the biggest challengesAstrophysics (Astrophysics (from the Greek astro = star and physic = physics) is a branch of…).

Cosmic ray birthplaces are known to produce neutrinos, neutral particles that are difficult to detect. their mass (The word mass is used to define two quantities connected to one…) In fact almost zero and they barely communicate with matter (Substance is the substance that makes up any body that contains a physical reality. Er…). They can “ride” the universe and pass through galaxies, planets and so on human body (The human body is the physical structure of a human being.) Almost without exception trace (TRACE is a NASA space telescope designed to study the connection between…). “Astrophysical neutrinos are exclusively produced during processes involvingacceleration (Acceleration usually refers to an increase in speed; in physics,…) cosmic rays,” said Sara Busson, professor of astrophysics at the Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) in Würzburg, Germany. This is what makes neutrinos unique messengers, leading to the localization of cosmic ray sources.

The end of the controversial debate?

Despite growing up Amount (Quantity is a general term in metrology (account, quantity); a scalar,…) of Information (In information technology (IT), data is a basic description, often…) Collected by astrophysicists in this regard, the link between high-energy neutrinos and the astrophysical sources that produce them remains largely a mystery. This is in 2017, in an article published in the magazine science (Science (Latin science, “knowledge”) according to the dictionary…), that Sarah Busson and her colleagues first put together the idea that a blazar (TXS 0506+056) could be a putative source of neutrinos. A blazar is an active galactic nucleus powered by a supermassive black hole that emits radiation (Radiation, synonymous with radiation in physics, the process of emission or…) That’s all of them galaxy (Galaxys is a quarterly French magazine devoted to science fiction. With…). This post sparked controversy scientific (A scientist is a person who is devoted to science or the study of science and who…) On the existence of a real link between blazars and high-energy neutrinos.

After this encouraging first step, Sarah Busson’s group had an ambitious start in June 2021. project (A project is an irrevocable commitment to uncertain results, which are not reproducible…) Study supported by the European Research Council. It analyzes various signals (or “messengers”, such as neutrinos) from the universe. The main purpose is to create the light (Light is a set of electromagnetic waves visible to the eye…) Regarding the origin of neutrinos, it is probably most definitely established that blazars are the primary source of high-energy extragalactic neutrinos.

The project is now enjoying its first success: in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters, Sarah Busson, with a group consisting of her former postdoctoral students Ranier de Menezes (JMU) and Andrea Tramassere, searcher (A researcher (female researcher) refers to a person whose job it is to research…) sectionastronomy (Astronomy is the science of observing the stars, trying to explain…) from UNIGE, reports that blazars may be associated with astrophysical neutrinos degree (The word degree has several meanings, notably used in the case of…) Unprecedented certainty.

Reveal the role of blazers

Andrea Tramassere is one of the modeling experts Digital (Digital Information Information…) Acceleration process and radiation process act in relativistic jets – flow of accelerated matter speed of light (The speed of light in vacuum, C denoted (for…) – and especially on the blazar’s jets.

“Methodgrowth (Accretion refers to growth in astrophysics, geology and meteorology…) and its rotation black hole (In astrophysics, a black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense…) leading to the formation of relativistic jets, where particles are accelerated and emit radiation up to a trillion times the energy of visible light! The discovery of the connection between these objects and cosmic rays could be the “Rosetta stone” of high-energy astrophysics!”, explained the UNIGE researcher.

To arrive at these results, the research team superimposed neutrino data obtained by the iCube neutrino observatory. Antarctic (Antarctica (pronounced [ɑ̃.taʁk.tik] (Listen) The continent is the most…) – The the discoverer (An inventor is a technological device (machine, substance, material) that changes…) The most sensitive neutrino array currently in service – and BZCAT, is one of the most accurate catalogs of blazars. “With these data, we had to prove that the directional positions of the blazars corresponded to those of the neutrinos. chance (In common parlance, the word opportunity is used to express a skill shortage, otherwise…)

To do this, UNIGE researchers have developed a Software (In computing, software is a set of processing information…) Able to guess how the point (graphics) Distribution of these objects the sky (The sky is Earth’s atmosphere as seen from the planet’s surface.) Looks similar. “After rolling the dice several times, we found that the random association could be greater than the real data once in a million trials! This is strong evidence of the accuracy of our associations.”

Despite this success, the research team thinks that this is the first time Dr sample (Generally speaking, a sample is a small amount of material, data, or…) Matters are only the “tip of the iceberg”. But this work allowed him to gather “new observational evidence”, i.e. the most important element for building a more realistic model of astrophysical accelerators.

“What we need to do now is understand what is the main difference between objects that emit neutrinos and those that don’t. This will help us understand how muchthe environment (Environment is everything around us. It is all natural elements and…) and Accelerator “Dialogue”. We will then be able to rule out some models, improve the predictive power of other models, and finally, add new pieces to the eternal puzzle of cosmic ray acceleration!”.

This research is published in Astrophysical Journal Letters – ArXiv: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ac7d5b

Andrea Tramacere – Scientific Assistant – Department of Astronomy – Faculty of Science – Andrea.Tramacere@unige.ch

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